Key Terminology

  • Horizontal integration: companies in the same level of the industry integrate together (for example: two production companies working together)
  • Vertical integration: when a media company profits and owns all areas of production, distribution and consumption
  • Theatrical exhibition: the term for cinema and theatre
  • Non-theatrical exhibition: watching a film from a source other than cinema and theatre- watching it online or on mobile, for example
  • Guerrilla film-making: a form of independent filmmaking with a low budget, skeleton crews and using whatever props are available
  • Technological convergence: existing technologies merge together to create a more up to date technology
  • Synergy: when two or more companies come together and achieve an objective that could not be achieved independently
  • Symbiosis: an interaction of two companies or organisations working together with advantages for both
  • Technological disruption: a new technology replaces an old technology as the new technology improves and makes the process easier
  • Media ownership: delivering multi-media (for example: video can be distributed online, on a mobile etc etc)
  • Media conglomerates: the massive companies that control the film studios
  • Concentration of ownership:
  • Targeted advertising: an advert for a film which is purposely targeted at an audience for example: showing an advert for a Disney film on a kid’s tv channel
  • Un-targeted advertising: this is an advert which isn’t directed at anyone in particular, for example: a poster at a bus stop
  • Cross-media ownership/convergence: a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media forms
  • “The Big Six”: the six big studios/companies – Time Warner, Disney, News Corp, GE, Viacom and CBS
  • Distribution: act of getting the firm to an audience
  • Exhibition: showing the film to an audience (usually in a cinema)
  • “The Lionsgate Twenty”: the twenty million dollars Lionsgate spends in advertising the film

Textual Analysis : Fingersmith

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of sexuality using the following: Camera shots, angle, movement and composition, editing, sound design and mise-en-scene.


The extract begins with the protagonist fitting a white dress, the colour white has connotations to the feeling of innocence – this can link to her innocence and vulnerability of her hiding her sexuality from everyone. Later on in this scene, shots change through the editing effect of dissolving. The shows the how the time is passing and Miss Maud is still feeling the same way about the servant. This is also shown when a wide shot of Maud’s hand hovering down the servant’s body clearly shows her desire for the woman. The non diegetic narrative of Maud runs through her thoughts and feelings about her feelings towards the lady.

The next scene is in the outside. Maud is painting her servant, which features many cross close cutting shots. Close ups of Maud painting the woman and close ups of the model’s  body shows Maud admiring the lady’s physical aspects. As soon as the male appears, the tension of the non diegetic score increases and the atmosphere becomes quite melancholy. The idea of the man appearing and the mood changing into something quite tense shows her vulnerability around dislike around the male character in the scene. The wide shot showing the man and Maud far away from the servant shows how distant the servant is away from the two of them; almost like she is unaware of the man’s desire for Maud. Maud then proceeds to drop red paint onto her skirt and as soon as she does that, the score stings and a reaction shot shows the man realisations for Maud’s love for the servant. The colour red is also associated with temptation and passion and as the red paint drops onto her white (this represents innocence) skirt, it shows that Maud’s innocence has now gone.

The man then drags Maud to the tree and a wide shot displays the male’s shadow overcasting maud. This arguably shows that the man is dominating her at this point; this could also show that the woman’s sexual desires for the servant are forgotten about at this point as the man and his desires are the main focus. The camera pans down her body as the man moves down her body which also relates to his desires. The tension is then cut as the diegetic sound of the servant calling for Miss Maud relaxes Maud. This can show that Maud is relaxed and feels most clam around the servant whom she loves.

Holmes Under The Hammer

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of ability/disability using the following: Camera shots, angle, movement and composition, editing, sound design and mise-en-scene.

In the lesson, we watched the first episode of the tv show ‘Sherlock’. It stars Benedict Cumberbatch and Martin Freeman. We studied the opening with the four key elements of textual analysis: camerawork, editing, sound design and mise-en-scene.

Camerawork: one of the most important ways to show emotion and what is actually going on the scene. 

In the first few seconds of the opening, the point of view shots of the war zone shows that the main character has this in his mind still and he is unable to disconnect from his thoughts. For audiences who don’t know this at the beginning, it introduces them to an intense atmosphere. The lens flare which is also featured in this clip (if it is actually done by the camera), shows that it is closer to reality and more realistic. These flashback/dreams are all handheld footage which can relate to the state of his mind: cluttered, all over the place and unable to connect to anything else.

The scene then cuts to a downwards shot of the character laid in bed. Since he is alone, this shows his vulnerability as a person. This is also very voyeuristic as the audience watch what he is doing and whats going on in his mind. This can link to the later scenes as Watson (Martin Freeman) is visiting a therapist (who looks at what is going on in his mind). Perhaps, this can make the audience become the role of the therapist with the very voyeuristic feel to it.

The dolly outwards of him sat on the bed by himself shows that he is unable to connect to anyone as he is alone. A few seconds later, the camera dolly’s out even further to show a walking stick lent against the desk. The audience then can link the walking stick to the character and his disability.

The next shot is Watson placing an apple and a mug onto the desk. The shallow focus of the mug shows the army logo. This brings the audience’s attention to it. It also links back to the dream sequence (the war zone) – he can’t leave the army lifestyle behind.

In the next scene, composition has been thought out well. The shot where Watson is sat in the therapist’s office. He is very separate from the surroundings which obviously show that he away from them. This can also mean that Watson cannot adjust to the life that he is and he is very far away from reality. Finally, when the camera dolly’s into Watson at the end of the scene, it brings the audience’s attention and connection is towards him – he is the main focus of the scene/shot.


In the beginning of the scene, there is fast paced editing to show how fast and quickly his life went. However, when it shows shots of Watson in present life – the editing pace is very slow. This shows the difference in the speed of what his life is like. During the war, he had the ability to do anything and run, walk etc etc. In present day, his life is very slow due to his disabilities.

During the scene where Watson is having a meeting with his councillor, shot reverse shot is used frequently. This not only shows the reactions of each characters when the other has said something but, it shows the contrast between them. This shows Watson’s disability to connect with others and find things in common with others around him.


The flashbacks/dreams regarding his past experience of the war feature: gunshots, shouting, camouflage suits, tanks and much more. These intense images have obviously traumatised Watson and he is unable to forget about this lifestyle. This contrasts with Watson’s clothing and room; the interior and the costume are very simple and plain. The differences between him in the present day and the flashback he had shows how simple his life is now.

The colour palette used for the scene where Watson is sat on his bed during the night creates a sad and hopeless atmosphere for the audience. Since he is sat on his bed just after having his flashback, the dark and dim colours used shows how he is now upset that he is unable to forget about his previous occupation and lifestyle.

In the same scene, Watson’s walking stick and his eye level are directly opposite from each other. This shows that he is constantly looking at it. It shows how much he relies on it. Linking to the question, this shows that he is unable to disconnect himself from it; since he has to use it in his everyday life.

The shot later on in the extract, where Watson places the apple and the mug onto the desk, also shows the contrast in his present and previous lives. The apple next to the mug with the army logo on it, shows his two lives; simple and exciting/intense.

Sound Design

At the start of the extract during the war flashback, there is a constant stream of echoes. This is can be seen as diegetic sound as it purports from the world of the film and, it is been heard in Watson’s mind – therefore, the character can hear it. These constant echoes display the distortion and trauma Watson faced during this time and, he is unable to forget about it all. The trauma he faced his then displayed by him later on in the scene, where he wakes up and the diegetic sound of his heavy breathing shows that he is in shock.

The scene where Watson is placing the apple and the mug into the desk whilst looking at his laptop shows the main character’s isolation and disability to connect to others. The diegetic sound of the distant car horn shows that he is far away from others and the city.

The sound bridge in the same scene where he opens his laptop links the blog to his treatment. Watson opens his laptop and at the same time, the therapist begins to speak. The lack of writing on his blog relates to the disconnection between himself and the therapist. This also helps the audience know what the blog is in relation to.

Textual Analysis : Mise-en-scene

In filmmaking, mise-en-scene is anything which can be seen in the film, which is not covered by: camerawork, sound design or editing.


The actors can be judged on their appearance. In terms of appearance, this includes: hair, makeup and costume. Not only that but, the actors’ actual performance classes as the appearance. Their actual performance includes things like: dialogue, expression, gesture and techniques used like “blocking”.


To help create the ideal theme in a visual way, lighting does just that. Lighting creates an ambience of a scene. An example of this is bright lights or bright lighting; which can be used to represent happiness or hope. On the other hand, shadows can be used to create a sense of foreboding or happiness.


Location, props and set decoration all come under the setting. The elements of the setting are carefully chosen based on the plot and what is happening in the scene at the time. Sometimes, directors use it for symbolism. These “symbols” may not be shown so obviously but, they may have a meaning to the story/scene itself.

Colour Palette

Colour shown in a film has a big influence of how the audience feels whilst watching the visual story. The influence power has on the audience allows the director to subtly manipulate the audience’s thoughts and feelings – this can change the feel and effect of the film. Colours are used to not only show the temperature of the scene but, to tell the story.

Textual Analysis : Editing

There are three forms narrative editing: contiguity, continuity and temporal structure. Continuity is things happening in a sequence, contiguity is multiple things happening at the same time and the temporal structure is how you show time passing in various ways.


  • Cross cut: things happening in a parallel order.
  • Action match: moment in one scene matches movement in another.
  • Graphic match: the shape of something in one scene matches the shape of something in another scene.


  • Establishing shot: a shot which “establishes” the setting at the start of the scene.
  • A cut away: where you show something else in one scene in vicinity – adds information/context.
  • Glance/object: when a character glances at an object and then you show the object.
  • Match on action:
  • Reaction shot: the shot of someone’s reaction to something.
  • Shot reverse shot: the most common way to film dialogue.
  • Master shot: recording of an entire dramatized scene, from start to finish, from an angle that keeps all the players in view.

Temporal Structure

  • Fast forward
  • Frame skip: like fast forward but skipping frames.
  • Freeze frame: freezing the scene/frame.
  • Slow motion
  • Time compression: when time is compressing in the video, this is making the duration shorter than real-time.
  • Juxtaposition: two different shots (to highlight the contrasts/differences).
  • Montage: collection of videos in a sequence.

Post production effects

  • Colour correction
  • Filters
  • Visual effects


  • Dissolve
  • Fade
  • Wipe

Textual Analysis : Sound Design

Sound design is a key part in the making of a film. Here are all the different types of sound design in the world of film.

Diegetic sound: sound that purports to come from the world of the film. This includes: sound recorded on set and the use of foley effects (this is everyday sounds separately recorded, which is then put into the film). The most common form of diegetic sound is dialogue. A way dialogue is also recorded is through the process of ADR (additional sound recording).

Non-Diegetic sound : sound added in post-production to have an effect on the audience. Two examples of non-diegetic sound is a composed score (music composed for the film) and compiled score (songs which already exists but, is then put into the film). Examples of composed scores are movie themes (‘Star Wars’, ‘James Bond’ etc etc) and “stings” which is audio punctuation (for example, in ‘Kill Bill’ when the alarm-espque sound is played). A narration/voice over also fits this category (for example, direct address is when the narrator addresses the audience).

Sound bridge: where the soundtrack from one scene continues to the other scene. 

Textual Analysis : Camerawork

Camera Shots

  • Wide shot/mid shot/medium shot: from waist to the top of the head (the most common shot used in the filming process).IMG_5385.JPG
  • Long shot: full body shot, this shows more of the environment.IMG_5386.JPG
  • Extreme long shot: a shot of the character in the environment.
  • Close up: a head shot.IMG_5387.JPG
  • Extreme close up: specific parts, for example: a shot of the eyes, mouth, nose etc etc.IMG_5388.JPG


  • The rule of thirds: this is a rule which is used by many directors and film makers. Things in the shot, which have the rule of thirds applied to them always look better. The rule can be used on a camera with the rule of thirds grid on the settings of the camera.


  • One shot: a shot with one person in it.
  • Two shot: a shot with two people in.
  • Point of view shot: the shot used to show the point of view of someone or something.


  • Shallow focus: a specific focus of something (a pen is focussed but everything else in the background).
  • Deep focus: everything is in focus in the shot.
  • Focus pull: within one shot, the focus changes from an object in the foreground to an object in the background and, vice versa.

Camera Angles

  • Eye level shot: a shot from middle point/eye level.
  • High angle shot: the camera is high (almost like it is above the subject).
  • Low angle shot: the camera is low (almost like it is looking up at the subject).
  • Bird’s eye view: looking straight below/what a bird would see in the sky.
  • Down shot: more limited than a bird’s eye view shot. A down shot would be done in a room whereas, a bird’s eye view shot would be done outside.
  • Up shot: opposite a bird’s eye view shot, on the floor/below something.
  • A dutch tilt: usually used to show drunkenness/disorientation.

Camera Movements

Aerial Shots

  • Helicopter shot: a shot done from a helicopter.
  • Shots using drones: a shot using a drone. It is like a helicopter shot but, cheaper and more stable.
  • Wire shot: this shot is done by using a wire which, the camera is attached to. For example, they used a wire to show a 100m sprint at the olympics.
  • Crane shot: a pivot with a long stick attached to it which, the camera is placed on. It can also be used to show shots on the floor as well as shots in the air/above.

Dolly Shots

  • Dolly shot: a wheeled vehicle on a track which means a smooth and precise movement (dolly out = further away, dolly in = moving forward/closer up).
  • Crab shot: uses a dolly track but, for sideways movement (called a crab shot because, it resembles the movement of a crab).
  • Arc shot: this shot is done by using a dolly track but, instead of sideways and forwards/backwards, it moves the camera in the shape of an arc.
  • Fixed shot: pan is a horizontal shot on a tripod and a tilt is camera moving vertically (tilting up and down) on a tripod.
  • Handheld shot: the cameraman is actually holding the camera.
  • Steadicam: the camera is strapped onto someone’s shoulder with a harness. This allows the camera to get a smooth shot from a handheld perspective.
  • Over the shoulder shot: used in conversation.


  • Zooming in/out: using the lens to zoom in and out of a subject (zooming out of something is also known as a reverse zoom).
  • Crash zoom/dolly zoom: dollying into something but, at the same time, zooming out (and vice versa).